The Effects of Some Selected Antibiotics on GIT Microflora

The Effects of Some Selected Antibiotics on GIT Microflora

Table 1b. The Effects of Some Selected Antibiotics on GIT Microflora

Agent Impact on Overgrowth of resistant strains Days to normalization of flora (post- administration) Other
Entero- bacteria Entero- cocci Anaerobic bacteria
Cefoperazone ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯ + not stated  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus;­ in

C. difficile and Candida; 70% of drug excreted in bile29,48,49

Cefotaxime ¯ ¯ not stated29
Cefotetan ¯ ­ ¯ + not stated  in Lactobacilli;

­ in C. difficile29

Cefotiam ¯ + not stated ­ in Candida and Pseudomonas; Ñ in Lactobacilli29
Cefoxitin ¯ ­ ¯ + not stated  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus; ­ in

C. difficile and Candida29,48

Ceftazadime ¯ not stated  in Lactobacilli29
Ceftizoxime ¯ + not stated No effect on Lactobacilli; ­ in Citrobacter spp. and Proteus spp.29
Ceftriaxone ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯ + 28  in Bifidus; ­ in Candida; 30% of drug excreted in bile29,49
Cephradine not stated No ­ in yeast29
Cephrocile ­ ¯ + 4 ­ in C. difficile29

 

 

An overview of some of the research investigating the effects of selected antibiotics on the GIT microflora. ¯¯ = strong suppression (> 4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ¯ = mild to moderate suppression (2-4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ­= increase in number of organisms during therapy; – = no significant change; Ñ= decrease; + = positive result; Bifidus= Bifidobacterium spp.

Table 1c. The Effects of Some Selected Antibiotics on GIT Microflora

Agent Impact on Overgrowth of resistant strains Days to normalization of flora (post- administration) Other
Entero- bacteria Entero- cocci Anaerobic bacteria
Ciprofloxacin ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯ 7 ­ in yeast colonization; no effect on Bifidus or Clostridia29,50
Clindamycin ­ ¯¯ + 14 10% of drug excreted in bile;

production of SCFAs;  in Bifidus and Lactobacilli29,36,48,49

Doxycycline ¯ ¯ + not stated No effect on SCFA

production29,36

Enoxacin ¯¯ 14 ­ in Candida29
Erythromycin ¯ ¯ ¯ + not stated No significant change in Lactobacilli or Bifidus;­ in yeast colonization;

production of

SCFAs29,36,48

Imipenem/ cilastatin ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ 14  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus29
Lomefloxacin ¯¯ 2129
Metronidazole not stated No significant change in Lactobacilli, yeasts, Bifidus, or SCFA

production29,36,48

Moxalactam ¯¯ ­ ¯¯ + 14  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus;­ in Candida and

C. difficile29,48

Norfloxacin ¯¯ 1429
Ofloxacin ¯¯ ¯  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus;­ in Candida29

An overview of some of the research investigating the effects of selected antibiotics on the GIT microflora. ¯¯ = strong suppression (> 4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ¯ = mild to moderate suppression (2-4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ­= increase in number of organisms during therapy; – = no significant change; Ñ= decrease; + = positive result; Bifidus= Bifidobacterium spp.

Table 1d. The Effects of Some Selected Antibiotics on GIT Microflora

Agent Impact on Overgrowth of resistant strains Days to normalization of flora (post- administration) Other
Entero-         Entero-   Anaerobic bacteria           cocci        bacteria
Pefloxacin ¯¯                  –                  – not stated No effect on Candida29
Phenoxymethyl- penicillin –                   –                  – 14 No significant change in Bifidus; larger doses Ñ Lactobacilli29,48,51
Piperacillin ¯                   ¯                  ¯ not stated29
Pivampicillin –                   –                  – + not stated ­ in Candida; no change in Bifidus or

Lactobacilli29,48,52

Pivmecillinam ¯¯                  ­                  ¯ + not stated  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus29,48
Talampicillin ­                   –                  – + not stated29
Temocillin ¯¯                  –                  – not stated29
Tetracycline –                   –                  – + not stated ­ in Candida; Ñ in Bifidus and Lactobacilli29,48
Ticarcillin/ Clavulanic acid ¯                   ­                  ¯ not stated  in Lactobacilli and Bifidus29
Tinidazole –                   –                  – not stated No significant change in Bifidus, Lactobacilli, or SCFAs29,48,53

 

An overview of some of the research investigating the effects of selected antibiotics on the GIT microflora. ¯¯ = strong suppression (> 4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ¯ = mild to moderate suppression (2-4 log 10 CFU/g feces); ­= increase in number of organisms during therapy; – = no significant change; Ñ= decrease; + = positive result; Bifidus= Bifidobacterium spp.

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